Catalonia was once the leading center of revolutionary activity in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War, Catalonia was home to the largest concentrations of the POUM (Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification) and the anarcho-syndicalist revolutionaries of the CNT and waged a historic struggle against the fascists, described in Orwell’s Homage to Catalonia.
Today, the separatist Party of Catalan Socialists (Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya) govern Catalonia, but this party is socialist in name only; a tepid social democratic party unlikely to make meaningful social change for working class Catalans. At the same time, much of the Catalan so-called “revolutionary left” take an anti-separatist position, so common where socialist chauvinists of a given ancien regime spout faux-internationalism to justify opposition to ceding any territory.
In the 1970 and ‘80s, a Catalan group engaged in armed struggle arose. Terra Lliure (FreeLand) sought to achieve independence through armed struggle against Spain, but never achieved the level of support or effectiveness of the Basque ETA. They eventually disbanded after negotiations with the national government.
The closest thing to a republican socialist analysis within contemporary Catalonia is the Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya). Esquerra can trace its history to the Spanish Civil War, when it was the leading political force in Catalonia. It does not limit its program to only Spanish-controlled Catalonia, but also is concerned with Catalan territory controlled by France.
Esquerra presently hold 23 seats in the Catalan assembly, making them the third largest party. They were in a coalition government there, but were forced out when it was revealed they had engaged in secret meetings with ETA leaders. While their reliance on electoral politics is a significant weakness and they are not revolutionary socialists, their commitment to an independent Catalan republic, their refusal to be constrained by the French/Spanish border, their solidarity with the ETA and other republican separatists in the Balearic Islands and Valencia, and their long history as a radical organization fighting for independence suggests that individual Catalan republican socialists are likely to be found within their ranks.